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Some Important STD (1)

Human papillomavirus
Cancer of penis (some cases), Condyloma acuminatum
Cervical dysplasia and cancer, vulvar cancer

Herpes simplex virus
Primary and recurrent herpes, neonatal herpes

Chlamydia trachomatis
Urethritis, epididymitis, proctitis Lymphogranuloma venereum, Urethral syndrome
cervicitis, bartholinitis, salpingitis, and sequelae

Some Important STD (2)

Ureaplasma urealyticum

Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Epididymitis, prostatitis, urethral stricture, Urethritis, proctitis, pharyngitis, disseminated gonococcal infection
Cervicitis, endometritis, bartholinitis, salpingitis and sequelae (infertility, ectopic pregnancy, recurrent salpingitis)

Some Important STD (3)

Treponema pallidum

Haemophilus ducreyi

Calymmatobacterium granulomatis
Granuloma inguinale (donovanosis)

Trichomonas vaginalis
Urethritis, balanitis

Grave disease.(hyperthyroidisim)...c

In Graves ophthalmopathy the volume of the retro-orbital connective tissues and extra-ocular muscles is increased as a result of several causes

(1) marked infiltration of the retro-orbital space by mononuclear cells, predominantly T cells

(2) inflammatory edema and swelling of extra-ocular muscles;

(3) accumulation of extracellular matrix components, specifically hydrophilic glycosaminoglycans such as hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate;

(4) increased numbers of adipocytes (fatty infiltration).

Grave disease.(hyperthyroidisim)...b

ages of 20 and 40, women, HLA-B8 and -DR3
concordance rate in monozygotic twins is as high as 60%

antibodies to the TSH receptor, thyroid peroxisomes, and thyroglobulin

Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin(TSI)
Thyroid growth-stimulating immunoglobulins (TGI)
TSH-binding inhibitor immunoglobulins (TBII)

Grave disease.(hyperthyroidisim)...a

characterized by a triad of

Thyrotoxicosis, caused by a diffusely enlarged, hyperfunctional thyroid
Infiltrative ophthalmopathy with resultant exophthalmos
A localized, infiltrative dermopathy (pretibial myxedema)


apathy and mental sluggishness that may mimic depression

cold intolerant, and often obese.

Mucopolysaccharide-rich edema accumulates in skin and tissues, causing broadening and coarsening of facial features, enlargement of the tongue, and deepening of the voice.
Bowel motility is decreased, resulting in constipation.
Pericardial effusions are common;
heart is enlarged, and heart failure may supervene.


hypothyroidism developing in infancy or early childhood

may also result from inborn errors in metabolism (e.g., enzyme deficiencies)

If there is maternal thyroid deficiency before the development of the fetal thyroid gland, mental retardation is severe.
impaired development of the skeletal system and central nervous system, with severe mental retardation, short stature, coarse facial features, a protruding tongue, and umbilical hernia

Major features of Cushing syndrome

Central obesity (about trunk and upper back)

Moon facies

Weakness and fatigability




Glucose intolerance/diabetes


Neuropsychiatric abnormalities

Menstrual abnormalities

Skin striae (sides of lower abdomen)

Eye structures.

(Anatomy of Human eye)

What do you know about Bacteriophages?

nBacteriophages ( phages ) are obligate intracellular parasites that multiply inside bacteria by making use of some or all of the host biosynthetic machinery . They are viruses that infect bacteria.
Composition of Bacteriophage
nNucleic acid: either DNA or RNA but not both
nds DNA, ss RNA, ss DNA
nunusual or modified bases
nencode 3-5 gene products to over 100 gene products
nProtein: function in infection and protect the nucleic acid