VIRGINITY, PREGNANCY, DELIVERY AND LEGITIMACY

Definitions:

Virginity: a virgin is a woman who has never had any sexual intercourse.
Defloration: loss of virginity

SIGNS OF VIRGINITY
  • Breasts: hemispherical, firm and rounded.
  • Nipple: small, undeveloped, areola is pink.
  • Labia majora: firm, elastic, rounded & completely.
  • Labia minora: soft, smooth, small, sensitive & pink in color.
  • Fourchette & posterior commisure: intact.
  • Vaginal wall: closely approximated.
  • Vaginal mucosa: rugose, reddish, sensitive to touch.
  • Hymen: intact, deeply situated in children & superficial after puberty, soft to firm in consistency & usually annular or semilunar in shape.



Different types or shapes of hymen:

  • Annular or circular (with a central aperture)
  • Cresentic or semi lunar
  • Fimbriated or notched
  • Septate (divided into two openings by a septum)
  • Cribiform (with several openings)
  • imperforate

Difference between fimbriate & torn hymen

Fimbriate

  • Notches are symmetrical
  • Notches occur anteriorly
  • Do not extend to vaginal wall
  • Mucus membrane intact
  • No signs of inflammation

Torn Hymen

  • Irregular
  • Usually posteriorly
  • Extend to vaginal wall
  • Damaged
  • Signs of inflammation present

Signs of defloration:
  • Carunculae myrtiformes: several small, granular tags or knobs of tissues (remnants of hymen).
  • Labia majora & vagina: lose of tone and rugosity.
  • Labia minora: leathery and hard.


Conditions causing ruptured hymen before coitus
  • Accidents
  • Masturbation
  • Instrumentation by doctors
  • Artificial dilatation of vagina by foreign bodies for prostitution
  • Passage of large blood clots

True virgin

  • Hymen is intact & the woman has had no sexual intercourse.
  • It only admits tip of little finger in vagina.

False virgin

  • Hymen is intact but the woman has had sexual intercourse
  • It can easily admit two fingers in vagina.

MLI of Virginity
  • Divorce
  • Defamation (chastity)
  • Rape

Signs of prgenancy in living:

Subjective

  • Cessation of menstruation
  • Morning sickness
  • Sympathetic disturbances (salivation, altered taste, irritable temper)
  • Quickening (movement of fetus felt by mother) – after 14-18 weeks
  • Frequency of micturation

Objective

  • Breast changes
  • Skin changes
  • Vaginal changes
  • Changes in cervix
  • Hegar’s sign (softening & compressibility of lower uterine segment from 2nd to 5th month)
  • Progressive enlargement of abdomen
  • Braxton Hick’s sign: intermittent contraction & relaxation of uterus after 4th month
  • Uterine souffle (soft blowing murmur heard by 3rd or 4th month)
  • Ballottment

Breast changes:

  • 2nd month: breast becomes full & tender, increase in size, veins become prominent, nipples enlarged, areola wider & darker, Montgomery’s tubercles (ENLARGED SEBACEOUS GLANDS)appear.
  • 3rd month: colostrum can be squeezed out of the nipples.
  • 6th month: lines like linea albicantes appear on breast due to stretching.


Skin changes:
  • Pigmentation of abdomen, axillae, pubis & vulva.
  • A dark line extends from symphysis to umbilicus called linea nigra.

Vaginal changes:
  • Pressure of the gravid uterus >> increased vascularity >> mucosa becomes purple or bluish purple >> Jacqueimier’s sign.
  • 4th month- pulsation of vaginal arteries is felt by placing a finger in vagina (osiander sign)

Changes in cervix:
  • 4th month- cervix becomes soft like lips (goodell’s sign)

Location of uterine fundus:
  • 4th month- just above symphysis pubis.
  • 5th month- midway b/w symphysis pubis & umbilicus.
  • 6th month- umbilicus.
  • 7th month- midway b/w umbilicus & xiphoid.
  • 8th & early 9th month- at xiphoid process.


Classification of signs of pregnancy in living:

A.Presumptive signs
  • Suppression of menstruation
  • Morning sickness
  • Sympathetic disturbances
  • Breast changes
  • Pigmentation of skin
  • Quickening
  • Vaginal changes
  • Urinary disturbances

B.Probable signs

  • Changes in abdomen
  • Softening of lower segment and os
  • Presence of cervical mucus plug
  • Braxton Hick’s sign
  • Ballottment
  • Uterine souffle
  • Biological tests

C.Positive signs of prgnancy:
  1. Fetal movements (after 5th month,at 24 weeks )
  2. Recognition of fetal parts (by abdominal examination)
  3. Fetal heart sound (160 bpm at 5th month, 120bpm at term),heard between 18-20 wks for first time.
  4. Radiograph of fetus (can be taken after 4th month)
  5. Ultrasound-G.S seen by 6th week

Pseudocyesis
-Spurious or phantom pregnancy
-Seen in women near menopause or those who are much desiring pregnancy
-All subjective symptoms of pregnancy including increase in abdominal size by abnormal fat deposition,or ascites occur
-even lady seen to have started labour like pains

Signs of prgenancy in Dead (on PM examination)
  • Presence of an ovum or fetus
  • Uterine changes
  • Presence of corpus luteum in one of the ovaries

Uterine changes:
  • Uterus thickened and enlarged
  • Length, breadth, & weight are increased
  • Chorionic villi are seen on microscopic examination

Posthumus child
  • -born after the death of father

MLI of pregnancy:
  • To escape hard labor or punishment
  • To avoid court attendance
  • In cases of property
  • In divorce cases
  • Black mailing
  • If a woman is charged of unchastity
  • Identification

Superfecundation-fertilisation of two ova which have been discharged by two separate acts of coitus commited at short intervals.

Superfoetation –fertilisation of second ovum in a woman who is already pregnant.

DELIVERY

Signs of recent delivery in living
  • General appearance- pale, exhausted & ill looking sunken eyes, slight increase in pulse and temperature.
  • After pains – intermittent contractions of uterus for the first 4-5 days after delivery.
  • Breasts- enlarged, contain colostrums, surface veins dilated & prominent, striae & Montgomery’s tubercle present
  • Abdomen- flaccid, wrinkled, striae gravidarum present
  • Fourchette- ruptured, posterior comissure destroyed
  • Vulva- bruised, tender & gaping
  • Vagina- lax, capacious, rugae begin to reappear about the third week

Uterus- enlarged, easily felt, palpate as a cricket ball
Soon after delivery- 2.5cm below umbilicus
10th day- on level with pelvic brim
2-3 weeks- returns to pelvic cavity
6 weeks- returns to normal size and position

Cervix- soft, patulous, may be lacerated. Internal os closes in first 24 hours, external os in two weeks.

Lochia- discharge from uterus and vagina for about 2-3 weeks.
  • Has a peculiar disaggreable odor
  • 1st 4-5 days- bright red with large clots- lochia rubra
  • Next 4 days- serous and pale in color- lochia serosa
  • After 9th day- yellowish grey or turbid- lochia alba until its final disappearance
  • If the blood or urine gives positive pregnancy test, strong evidence that pregnancy has been terminated recently. (likely to disappear in a week or 10 days)


Signs of recent delivery in dead:

  • Breast when cut open, may show milk
  • Uterus flabby and enlarged
  • Ovaries and fallopian tube congested, on section may show corpus luteum


7 comments:

  1. mbbs in Philippines
    Every year, almost 8000 foreign students take admission in Philippines Medical universities and out of which around 50% are Indian students. The standard of education in Philippines universities is well known around the world. Thousands of doctors from these medical universities are sent to various countries like USA and UK every year. There are around 2299 higher educational institutions and 40 medical colleges. The main benefits of pursuing MD degree from

    Top Medical Colleges in Philippines :

    EMILIO AGUINALDO COLLEGE OF MEDICINE
    UNIVERSITY OF PERPETUAL HELP SYSTEM DALTA
    LYCEUM NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY
    DAVAO MEDICAL SCHOOL FOUNDATION
    SOUTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY

    Top Searched Topics on MBBS in Philippines


    study mbbs in philippines
    philippines medical colleges list
    best medical colleges in philippines for indian students
    philippines medical colleges
    best medical colleges in philippines
    mci approved medical colleges in philippines

    for more information contact us : +91 90329 55688

    ReplyDelete
  2. I’m going to read this. I’ll be sure to come back. thanks for sharing. and also This article gives the light in which we can observe the reality. this is very nice one and gives indepth information. thanks for this nice article... folic acid for pregnancy

    ReplyDelete
  3. One simple way to make a homemade pregnancy test is to buy a bottle of vinegar. By pouring your urine into a small cup of vinegar, you are supposed to be able to predict pregnancy. If you are pregnant, the color of the urine and vinegar combination will change. Additionally, there could be some fizzle when you pour the urine into the vinegar. There is no scientific evidence to support this kind of homemade test. Additionally, there is no research available to indicate how much urine or how much vinegar to use to make this test work. Best hcg test strips

    ReplyDelete
  4. This is my first time visit here. From the tons of comments on your articles,I guess I am not only one having all the enjoyment right here! europa-road.eu

    ReplyDelete
  5. I was reading some of your content on this website and I conceive this internet site is really informative ! Keep on putting up. حوامل

    ReplyDelete
  6. the term is likewise applied to creatures. restore virginity

    ReplyDelete
  7. UV GULLAS COLLEGE OF MEDICINE is one of Top Medical College in Philippines in Cebu city. International students have the oppertunity to study medicine in phillipines at affordable cost and world class University. The college has successful alumni who have achieved well in the fields of law, business, politics, academe, medicine, sports and other endeavors. At University of the Visayas, we prepare students for a global competition.

    Direct MBBS Admissions Open: 2020-21
    Mobile No: +91 90329 55688
    Apply Now: https://www.careerplus.org.in/philippines-medical-college/uv-gullas-college-of-medicine

    ReplyDelete

Popular Posts