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Leukoplakia refers to a whitish, well-defined mucosal patch or plaque caused by epidermal thickening or hyperkeratosis,

On microscopic evaluation they vary from hyperkeratosis to mild to severe dysplasia bordering on carcinoma in situ,

tobacco, particularly pipe smoking and smokeless tobacco (pouches, snuff, chewing), chronic friction, as from ill-fitting dentures or jagged teeth; alcohol abuse; and irritant foods, HPV

Cancerous transformation rate is greatest with lip and tongue lesions and lowest with those on the floor of the mouth.

Hairy leukoplakia: found in pts with AIDS and is not premalignant

Verrucous leukoplakia

Erythroplakia refers to red, velvety, often granular, circumscribed areas
the malignant transformation rate is >50%

Leukoplakia with marked epithelial thickening and hyperkeratosis.

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