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Secondary achalasia .

Chagas disease,

caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes destruction of the myenteric plexus of the esophagus, duodenum, colon, and ureter;
polio, and autonomic neuropathy in diabetes

The wall of the esophagus may be of normal thickness, thicker than normal because of hypertrophy of the muscularis, or markedly thinned by dilation

The myenteric ganglia are usually absent from the body of the esophagus
Inflammation in the location of the esophageal myenteric plexus is pathognomonic of the disease

stasis of food may produce mucosal inflammation and ulceration proximal

progressive dysphagia and inability to completely convey food to the stomach. Nocturnal regurgitation and aspiration of undigested food may occur,

hazard of developing esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

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