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Joints of Upper , Lower Limb and Skull

Joints of upper limb

Joints of should girdle

Sternoclavicular joint

Bones: sternal end of clavicle, clavicular notch of sternum, and first costal cartilage

Articular capsule:

strong and is reinforced by anterior and posterior sternoclavicular ligaments An articular disc is attached to the capsule, dividing the joint into two cavities.

Movements: elevation and depression, forward and backward, rotation and circumduction of the acromial end of the clavicle

Acromioclavicular joint
Bones: acromion and acromial end of clavicle
Movement: rotation of scapula on clavicle
Coracoacromial arch:
formed by coracoacromial ligament, coranoid process, and acromion, that prevents the shoulder joint from superior dislocation.

Joints of free upper limb

Shoulder joint
(ball and socket)

head of humerus and glenoid cavity of scapula


Thin and lax, especially lower part
Attachments: proximal to glenoid labrum; distal to anatomical neck of humerus, except medially where it is slightly distal to surgical neck
Tendon of long head of biceps brachii passes though the cavity

Accessory structures

Glenoid labrum: fibrocartilaginous ring on periphery of glenoid cavity

Coracohumeral ligament :runs from coracoid process to greater tubercle
Movements: flexion,
extension, adduction,
abduction, medial and
lateral rotation,

Elbow joint

Bones: lower end of humerus, upper ends of radius and ulna

Humeroulnar joint :
formed by trochlear of humerus and troclear noch (hinge)

Humeroradial joint:
formed by capitulum of humerus and head of radius (ball and socket)

Proximal radioulnar joint:
formed by articular circumference of radius and radial notch of ulna


thin and lax anteriorly and posteriorly, strongly thickened on either side by collateral ligaments


Radial collacteral ligament:

attached to lateral epicondyle and annular ligament of radius

Ulnar collacteral ligament:

attached to medial epicondyle to medial border of trochlear notch
Annular ligament of radius: attached to anterior and posterior margins of radial notch of ulna, surrounds the head of radius


flexion and extension,
pronation and supination

Joints between radius and ulna

Proximal radioulnar joint

Distal radioulnar joint: formed by head of ulna, ulnar notch of radius and an articular disc

Interosseous membrane of forearm: a fibrous membrane between the shaft of radius and ulna

Joints of hand

Radiocarpal joint (ellipsoid)


Carpal articular surface of radius and articular disc below the ulna
Proximal row of carpal: scaphoid, lunate, and triquetral bones, but not pisiform

Capsule: lax and strengthened by surrounding ligament

Movements: flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, and circumduction

Intercarpal joints
Carpometacarpal joints

Carpometacarpal joint of thumb

Bones: trapezium and base of first metacarpal

Movement: flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, and opposition

Intermetacarpal joints

Metacarpophalangeal joints

Interphalangeal joints

Joints of Lower limb

Joints of pelvic girdle
Sacroiliac joint
Bones: auricular surface of sacrum and ilium
Capsule: very tight and strengthened by ligaments

Vertebropelvic ligaments

Iliolumbal ligament: runs from transverse process of L5 to the posterosuperior part of iliac crest

Sacrotuberous ligament:

runs from lateral margins of sacrum and coccyx to the inner margin of ischial tuberosity

Sacrospinous ligament:

runs from ischial spine to lateral margins of sacrum and coccyx

These two ligaments convert the sciatic notches the greater and lesser sciatic foramina

Pubic symphysis


symphysial surface and interpubic disc (fibrocartilage)
Ligaments: superior pubic ligament and arcuate pubic ligament

Obturator membrane

Obturator canal

Bony pelvis


formed by paired hip bones, sacrum, coccyx, and their articulations
In anatomical position, anterior superior iliac spines and pubic tubercles on same vertical plane, while the tip of coccyx and superior border of pubic symphysis on same horizontal plane.

Terminal line:

formed by promontory of sacrum, arcuate line, pectin of pubis, pubic tubercle, upper border of pubic symphysis
Two portions: a greater pelvis and a lesser pelvis

Lesser pelvis

pelvic inlet (terminal line):
Pelvic outlet :

formed by tip of coccyx, sacrotuberous ligament, ischial tuberosity, ramus of ischium, inferior ramus of pubic, symphysis
Pelvic cavity
Pubic arch, subpubic angle

Main difference between male and femal pelvis

Joints of free lower limb

Hip joint

Bones: acetabulum and femoral head

Articular capsule attachments
Above: margins of acetabulum and transverse acetebular ligament

Below: in front to intertrochanteric line; behind, to the neck of femur above 1 cm above the intertrochanteric crest

Accessory structures

Acetabulum labrum; transverse acetebular ligament

Iliofemoral lig.
Ligament of head of femur
Pubofemoral lig.
Ischiofemoral ligament
Zona orbicularis


flexion, extention, adduction, abduction, medial and lateral rotation, circumduction

Knee joint

Bones: lower end of femur, upper end of tibia and patella

Articular capsule: superapatellar bursa,
deep infrapatellar bursa, ala folds

Accessory structures

Patellar lig.
Fibular collateral lig.
Tibial collateral lig.

Oblique popliteal ligament
Anterior cruciate ligment
Posterior cruciate ligament

Medial meniscus (C-shaped)
lateral meniscus (O-shaped)

Movements: flexion and extension; flexed knee joint may be passively rotated through 700

Tibiofibular syndesmosis
Tibiofibular joint
Crural interosseous membrane
Anterior and posterior tibiofibular ligaments

Joint of foot

Talocrural joint (ankle joint)
Bones: lower ends of tibia and fibula, trochlea of talus

Articular capsule: thin and lax in front and behind, and supported on each side by strong collateral ligaments.

Medial lig.
Lateral lig.
Anterior talofibular lig.
Calcaneofibular lig.
Posterior talofibular lig.


dosiflexion (extension) and plantar flexion (flexion); when the ankle joint is fully plantar flexed, small amounts of abduction, and adduction are possible.

Intertarsal joints
Talocalcaneal joint
Talocalcaneonavicular joint
Calcaneocuboid joint
Tarsometatarsal joints
Intermetatarsal joints
Metatarsophalangeal joints
Interphalangeal joints
Arches of foot

Medial longitudinal arch:

formed by calcaneus, navicular, three cuneiforms and first to third metatarsal bones, head of talus is the keystone of this arch

Lateral longitudinal arch:

formed by calcaneus, cuboid, fourth and fifth metatarsals; cuboid is the keystone of this arch.

Tranverse arch:
formed by cuboid, three cuniforms and all metatarsals; the intermediate cuneiform is the keystone of this arch

Function: give to foot strength stability and resilience; protect plantar vessels and nerves

Joints of skull

Continuous joints: sutures, synchondrosis or synosteosis

Temporomandibular joint

Aticulating surfaces

Mandibular fossa and articular tubercle, above
Head of mandibule, below

Capsule: thin and lax in front and behind; strengthened by the lateral ligament

Articular disc: separates surfaces, forming upper and lower compartments within joint

Movement: mandible may be elevated or depressed, protruded or retracted; rotation may also occurs as in chewing( a slight amount of side to side movement is also permitted)

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